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Immunotherapy research using Raman spectroscopy

  • Application description
  • Raman spectroscopy
  • SNOM

The first application to evaluate biochemical changes in malignancies treated by immunotherapy using Raman spectroscopy (Nature publication to download here) was developed by a research team from the University of Arkansas.

Immunotherapy, unlike other therapeutic approaches, does not always lead to immediate and predictable suppression of tumor growth. There is also currently no reliable way to evaluate a patient's response to treatment. At the same time, only a small proportion of patients respond to treatment and a large number of selected immunosuppressants have serious side effects.

Raman spectroscopy is a fast, non-destructive and reliable method of analysis that does not require any labeling of molecules. It is a powerful tool that can improve diagnostic accuracy through deep insight into the biochemical changes that occur in cancer tissue.

In this pilot study, Raman spectroscopic imaging was used to diagnose and classify chondrogenic tumors, including advanced enchondromas and chondrosarcomas.

Raman spectroscopy techniques

Raman spectroscopy was used here to evaluate the molecular composition of colon cancer tumors in mice treated with two types of immunotherapeutic drugs that are now used in clinical treatment.

Hundreds of Raman spectra of these tumors treated with various immunotherapeutic procedures were measured, which were then used as input data for machine learning algorithms.

The data from each tumor were then compared to all available data to see if there was a difference between tumors that received different forms of immunotherapy and tumors that remained untreated. It was found that the method is able to detect even early forms of tumors.

Cancer diagnosis using Raman spectroscopy

Cancer diagnosis has long been one of the most difficult tasks in medicine, and it is Raman spectroscopy that is becoming increasingly important in detecting the chemical composition of tissues and cells as new non-invasive procedures are developed or old ones are improved.

Raman spectroscopy has revealed pathological abnormalities in bone matrix components and is also used to analyze common bone biochemical characteristics. These changes include modifications in the breakdown of phosphates, carbonates and collagen, as well as spectral modifications in bone metastases caused by prostate or breast cancer.

The formation of calcifications was also confirmed by topographic analysis, which is consistent with the histological morphology of cartilaginous tumors, which usually reveal amorphous calcium deposits and ossification. In rare cases, excessive bone development can lead to misdiagnosis of osteosarcoma.

Even in this case, Raman spectroscopy has proven to be a powerful diagnostic tool.

Proline detection by Raman spectroscopy

Proline is an essential amino acid for collagen production. The degree of malignancy seems to be closely linked to the numerous biochemical processes, such as the collagen breakdown, which is the source of the increased proline content, cell proliferation or variable biochemical composition of non-collagenous proteins with respect to proteoglycan content.

These processes are another argument for the versatile use of Raman spectroscopy in this field.

The Nicolet DXR3 Dispersi Raman Microscope is an instrument designed for applications requiring high spatial resolution, ease of sample preparation, and the use of the strongpoints of Raman microscopy.
The user-proven DXR Raman microscope is now available in the new version of the DXR3xi with a high-performance EMCCD detector and a microscopic table with the possibility of nanoslift for super fast Chemical Imaging of your samples.
IR-neaSCOPE is the basic model for infrared imaging and nano-spectroscopy. It provides maximum performance without damaging the sample. This is a cost-effective solution for samples with a high coefficient of thermal expansion.
IR-neaSCOPE+fs is designed for pump-probe spectroscopy with 10fs temporal and 10nm spatial resolution: it enables ultra-fast nanoscale science.
IR-neaSCOPE+s enables IR imaging and nano-FTIR spectroscopy by detecting radiation reflected from a standard AFM tip. It is a universal solution for all types of materials. It measures both absorbed and reflected radiation simultaneously and uses the fastest and most reliable modules for nano-imaging and nano-spectroscopy.
IR-neaSCOPE+TERs is a revolution in nano-spectroscopy thanks to a combination of nano-FTIR and Raman spectroscopy techniques, providing complete spectral analysis.
SNOM (near field scanning optical microscopy or NSOM) is a microscopic technique that exceeds the resolution limit due to the properties of attenuated waves. The distance between the detector and the sample is less than the wavelength of light when measured, and this is used in optical microscopy, among other things, for its ability to increase the contrast of nanoparticles.

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