Geology, mineralogy and gemology: applications of molecular spectroscopy
For geology, mineralogy and gemology, the analysis of the chemical composition of the samples is very important, whether it is the composition of the mineral itself or its inclusions.
Therefore, the use of molecular spectroscopy is very convenient. Using the methods of Raman and FT-IR spectroscopy, which are complementary to each other, it is possible not only to determine the chemical composition of the examined sample, but also a specific polymorph, or to verify the place of origin and authenticity.
Inclusion is any type of substance enclosed in another substance, with a different structure (eg liquid, gas, other solid in a solid). It is formed in the crystal during its growth, when during crystallization the substance inside the crystal is locked and a phase interface is formed.
Dispersive Raman spectroscopy, which is confocal, allows the analysis of the chemical composition of similar objects without the need to modify samples: there is no need to cut, grind or otherwise prepare them. In addition, it is possible to measure 2D and 3D maps of chemical composition.